Selasa, 09 April 2013

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Research by Iqbal Hasan is channeling human curiosity towards the existence of a problem with a particular behavior, in order to obtain something (to reach the truth, the answer to the problem, the development of science, and to test the theory).Research is the search for truth and prove scientifically. Scientific research says if the way it works exhibit certain characteristics of science, namely rational, empirical and systematic, objective, critical and controlled. Rational means that the study was done in a way that reached by human reason. Empirical means, in ways that do can be observed by human senses. Systematic means, studies using specific steps that are logical."Research Methodology" comes from the word "method" which means that the right way to do things, and "Logos" which means science or knowledge. So the methodology means that way of doing things using the mind carefully to achieve a goal.In the research methodology, there are several kinds of research include:1.) According to the field of science- Social science: research education, agricultural research, legal research,
  
economic studies, religious studies, research mission, mission studies, etc.- Exact science: the study of mathematics, chemistry, physics research,
  
medicine, pharmacy, etc.2.) According to the results obtained- Pure research pure (basic) - applied research (unused)3.) According place- Research labs - research arena- Research library - field research4.) According to the general purpose- Exploratory research (find something new)- Research develompmental (development)- Research verification (test)
5.) According tarapnya- Research inferential6.) According to the approach- Longitudinal study - a qualitative study- Cross sectional study - quantitative research7.) According to the technique- Experimental research - research survey8.) By Scientifics- Scientific research - non-scientific research9.) According to the explanatory- Descriptive research - a comparative studyThe next in the discussion will be explained in detail on the definition of qualitative research, strategies, methods, measures, and data analysis.


CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

1. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHIt is important in qualitative research is how the researchers were able to formulate the problem categories as a concept to compare the data. Qualitative research can explore the attitudes, behaviors and experiences of respondents through interviews and focus group methods.1.1 Definition of Qualitative ResearchQualitative research is a study of the research is descriptive and tend to use inductive analysis approach. Process and meaning (subject perspective) more highlighted in qualitative research. The foundation of the theory is used as a guide to focus the research in accordance with the facts on the ground. Besides the theoretical basis is also useful to provide an overview of the background research and as a discussion of the research results.1.2 Formulation CategoryFormulation digunakann category for any category that address the problems of research, or comparison between categories. For example, a researcher, analyzed a group of clients, researchers can obtain a large number of comparisons categories by using a variety of concepts. Such categories of gender, age category, education level, etc. categories. The selection of categories is certainly based on the formulation and research purposes, so that the category assigned expected to answer the research problem.1.3 Qualitative Research StrategiesIn determining the qualitative research strategy, there are some questions or steps that must be answered first. The first phase, to determine the categories deemed important and relevant to the formulation of research objectives. Determining which category is more important based on the theoretical framework, research coverage, and relevance to the research. The second phase, to determine the similarities and differences of these categories that will be seen whether or not comparable between these categories. The third stage, making relationships between categories so that they can answer the question in the study.1.4 Steps in Qualitative ResearchStages of qualitative research can be classified into two types, namely that suggested by physical measures (field operations / pragmentaris) and the steps taken by the work and thought (conceptual framework / paradigm) qualitative research.Step - step Qualitative research is as follows:1. The study of a new paradigm, examine the empirical issues2. Set topic3. Determine the focus4. Literature5. Develop category / sub-category6. Develop instrument7. Collect field data8. Triangulation9. Data processing10. Description, discussion and conclusions11. Check the validity of the data12. The research report1.5 Model used in Qualitative ResearchQualitative research can be done using two approaches, namely direct approach (direct approach) and indirect approaches (indirect approach).1. Direct ApproachThis approach is explained to respondents the objectives, benefits of research in detail to the respondents in the hope of immediate objective responses obtained from the respondents. In the direct approach can be done through focus groups and interviews / interview in depth (depth interviews).
1. Focus GroupFocus Group is an interview / interview that uses a moderator, where the number of respondents is relatively small (8-12 persons) and homogeneous, unstructured and done naturally. Factors commercialized place a relaxed informal atmosphere, so the knee-jerk response can be obtained, during the period of 1-2 hours. In the case of focus groups (FG) is the moderator had a significant role in creating a relaxed and informal atmosphere. So the ability to interact, the ability to stimulate the respondents to express an opinion, the ability to control emotionally and intellectually, is absolutely necessary.2. In-depth Interviews (Depth Interview)Interview / interview conducted directly on a nik in using the models respondents' probe (probe) "by an interviewer. The purpose of the interview is to find out some things that have not been revealed by the respondents, such as: motivation, beliefs, behaviors, feelings about a given topic in order to obtain the data for analysis.Some of these techniques include Depth Interview:1. LadderingThe process of asking questions of "product characteristics" changed to "user characteristics" or according to the wishes and opinions of consumers.2. Questions about Hidden IssueThe technique gives more questions involve personal opinions.3. Symbolic AnalysisEmotional fishing techniques through submission of the things that are contrary to reality, to do when the interview somewhat less willing to participate in the interview / interview.In an interview, the interviewer / researcher needs to consider several issues related to the interviewee. Engineering interview / interviews are expected to be obtained by a direct response more objectively, because the less likely influenced by others. For that interviewers / researchers need to put themselves on the side that wants to know. For that the words "I know", "I disagree", "I'm sorry I cut your explanation", etc. should be avoided, in other words, given the breadth of the respondent to answer.2. Indirect ApproachIn this approach, the respondents did not have a clear or exactly what the intention of the researchers, because the researchers did not clearly convey the purpose of the study to the respondents. Techniques in the indirect approach is projective pachniques, and observation1. Projective PachniquesRespondents were asked to provide stimulation and immediate response when the answer appears dipikrannya. One respondent dibri list of words one by one and dimnta respond spontaneously.2. ObservationObservation (observation) is a technique in obtaining data through observation of an object / person in a certain period.1.6 Qualitative Research MethodologySome qualitative research methodology:1. Action Research. In Action Research researchers oanrg join a group that wants / has the same goal. The next step is action (implementsi rncana). This stage menckup events that led to the goals and ideas that have been planned. The third phase of the Action Research is an observation. Tahpan observation pelaksnaan researchers conducted an analysis and observation of the impact on the group members. The last stage is the stage refleksing, which at this stage of interpretation penliti to conditions that occur that can dcari an HSIL ksimpulan RSET. For this kgiatan dri HSIL mbgkur pliti dpat using questionnaire instruments, focus group / interview.2. Ethnography. Ethnography is the emphasis in explaining and interpreting behavior in a particular culture. Researchers join and live with a community for a certain time. Researchers involved and at the same time observing the activities of the project, and taking notes, conducting interviews and reflected in the results of the study.3. Grounded Theory. This method tends to emphasize observations at the level of theory, especially in the fields of education and health, in order to refine existing theories, hence the results of the study.
1.7 Qualitative Data AnalysisQualitative data was obtained from the primary data process between researchers and participants (respondents). When there are two researchers who analyzed the same theme, they can lead to two different results. This happens because the analysis process involves personal background influenced by the researcher and the respondent can be fickle. Besides, differences may occur because of differences in methodology, there are political interests, or the interests behind the research they will be there. However, the analysis of qualitative data can be compiled with kaulitatif analysis.Qualitative data analysis is heavily influenced by the research topic, time, preferences of researchers, funding, and equipment. Thus kualititaf data analysis begins with preparing the format to be used in the analysis. This format can be a record of the process of observation, open-ended questionnaire format field. This format is used to write the response and the conditions observed. At least structured format that includes anyone who meninterview / observation, date, time, duration and where the interview / observation. Included in this format contains records of when the interview took place, the responses to the research themes, the things that come up when the interview took place, etc..1. Thematic Analiysis (Thematic Analysis)When the data were analyzed based on a theme, then it is called a thematic analysis. This analysis techniques tend to think of inductive pattern, where the analysis is intended to obtain data in the form of responses from groups / individuals on a particular theme.2. Comparative Analysis (Comparative Analysis)Comparative analysis has similarities with a thematic analysis, in which researchers use different groups to get the data. Researchers repeatedly comparing the data obtained from one group to another group as well as literature tekait.3. Content AnalysisIn the content analysis, the researchers systematically examine these records into a specific code or a specific word to describe the characteristics of respondents. Code or category can be prepared in advance by the researcher, so that at the stage of code or a category of analysis has been prepared. Content analysis can be used to open enden question with a large number of questionnaires, and researchers can quantify the qualitative data.4. Discourse AnalysisThe analysis is more concerned with the pattern of the respondents spoke when given a question, what kind of sentence that respondents, and how the response to the speaker on the subject of research. Thus, the analysis is more on intuition and analysis describing what happened to the respondent.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Research by Iqbal Hasan is channeling human curiosity towards the existence of a problem with a particular behavior, in order to obtain something (to reach the truth, the answer to the problem, the development of science, and to test the theory).Research is the search for truth and prove scientifically. Scientific research says if the way it works exhibit certain characteristics of science, namely rational, empirical and systematic, objective, critical and controlled. Rational means that the study was done in a way that reached by human reason. Empirical means, in ways that do can be observed by human senses. Systematic means, studies using specific steps that are logical."Research Methodology" comes from the word "method" which means that the right way to do things, and "Logos" which means science or knowledge. So the methodology means that way of doing things using the mind carefully to achieve a goal.In the research methodology, there are several kinds of research include:1.) According to the field of science- Social science: research education, agricultural research, legal research,
  
economic studies, religious studies, research mission, mission studies, etc.- Exact science: the study of mathematics, chemistry, physics research,
  
medicine, pharmacy, etc.2.) According to the results obtained- Pure research pure (basic) - applied research (unused)3.) According place- Research labs - research arena- Research library - field research4.) According to the general purpose- Exploratory research (find something new)- Research develompmental (development)- Research verification (test)
5.) According tarapnya- Research inferential6.) According to the approach- Longitudinal study - a qualitative study- Cross sectional study - quantitative research7.) According to the technique- Experimental research - research survey8.) By Scientifics- Scientific research - non-scientific research9.) According to the explanatory- Descriptive research - a comparative studyThe next in the discussion will be explained in detail on the definition of qualitative research, strategies, methods, measures, and data analysis.


CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

1. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHIt is important in qualitative research is how the researchers were able to formulate the problem categories as a concept to compare the data. Qualitative research can explore the attitudes, behaviors and experiences of respondents through interviews and focus group methods.1.1 Definition of Qualitative ResearchQualitative research is a study of the research is descriptive and tend to use inductive analysis approach. Process and meaning (subject perspective) more highlighted in qualitative research. The foundation of the theory is used as a guide to focus the research in accordance with the facts on the ground. Besides the theoretical basis is also useful to provide an overview of the background research and as a discussion of the research results.1.2 Formulation CategoryFormulation digunakann category for any category that address the problems of research, or comparison between categories. For example, a researcher, analyzed a group of clients, researchers can obtain a large number of comparisons categories by using a variety of concepts. Such categories of gender, age category, education level, etc. categories. The selection of categories is certainly based on the formulation and research purposes, so that the category assigned expected to answer the research problem.1.3 Qualitative Research StrategiesIn determining the qualitative research strategy, there are some questions or steps that must be answered first. The first phase, to determine the categories deemed important and relevant to the formulation of research objectives. Determining which category is more important based on the theoretical framework, research coverage, and relevance to the research. The second phase, to determine the similarities and differences of these categories that will be seen whether or not comparable between these categories. The third stage, making relationships between categories so that they can answer the question in the study.1.4 Steps in Qualitative ResearchStages of qualitative research can be classified into two types, namely that suggested by physical measures (field operations / pragmentaris) and the steps taken by the work and thought (conceptual framework / paradigm) qualitative research.Step - step Qualitative research is as follows:1. The study of a new paradigm, examine the empirical issues2. Set topic3. Determine the focus4. Literature5. Develop category / sub-category6. Develop instrument7. Collect field data8. Triangulation9. Data processing10. Description, discussion and conclusions11. Check the validity of the data12. The research report1.5 Model used in Qualitative ResearchQualitative research can be done using two approaches, namely direct approach (direct approach) and indirect approaches (indirect approach).1. Direct ApproachThis approach is explained to respondents the objectives, benefits of research in detail to the respondents in the hope of immediate objective responses obtained from the respondents. In the direct approach can be done through focus groups and interviews / interview in depth (depth interviews).
1. Focus GroupFocus Group is an interview / interview that uses a moderator, where the number of respondents is relatively small (8-12 persons) and homogeneous, unstructured and done naturally. Factors commercialized place a relaxed informal atmosphere, so the knee-jerk response can be obtained, during the period of 1-2 hours. In the case of focus groups (FG) is the moderator had a significant role in creating a relaxed and informal atmosphere. So the ability to interact, the ability to stimulate the respondents to express an opinion, the ability to control emotionally and intellectually, is absolutely necessary.2. In-depth Interviews (Depth Interview)Interview / interview conducted directly on a nik in using the models respondents' probe (probe) "by an interviewer. The purpose of the interview is to find out some things that have not been revealed by the respondents, such as: motivation, beliefs, behaviors, feelings about a given topic in order to obtain the data for analysis.Some of these techniques include Depth Interview:1. LadderingThe process of asking questions of "product characteristics" changed to "user characteristics" or according to the wishes and opinions of consumers.2. Questions about Hidden IssueThe technique gives more questions involve personal opinions.3. Symbolic AnalysisEmotional fishing techniques through submission of the things that are contrary to reality, to do when the interview somewhat less willing to participate in the interview / interview.In an interview, the interviewer / researcher needs to consider several issues related to the interviewee. Engineering interview / interviews are expected to be obtained by a direct response more objectively, because the less likely influenced by others. For that interviewers / researchers need to put themselves on the side that wants to know. For that the words "I know", "I disagree", "I'm sorry I cut your explanation", etc. should be avoided, in other words, given the breadth of the respondent to answer.2. Indirect ApproachIn this approach, the respondents did not have a clear or exactly what the intention of the researchers, because the researchers did not clearly convey the purpose of the study to the respondents. Techniques in the indirect approach is projective pachniques, and observation1. Projective PachniquesRespondents were asked to provide stimulation and immediate response when the answer appears dipikrannya. One respondent dibri list of words one by one and dimnta respond spontaneously.2. ObservationObservation (observation) is a technique in obtaining data through observation of an object / person in a certain period.1.6 Qualitative Research MethodologySome qualitative research methodology:1. Action Research. In Action Research researchers oanrg join a group that wants / has the same goal. The next step is action (implementsi rncana). This stage menckup events that led to the goals and ideas that have been planned. The third phase of the Action Research is an observation. Tahpan observation pelaksnaan researchers conducted an analysis and observation of the impact on the group members. The last stage is the stage refleksing, which at this stage of interpretation penliti to conditions that occur that can dcari an HSIL ksimpulan RSET. For this kgiatan dri HSIL mbgkur pliti dpat using questionnaire instruments, focus group / interview.2. Ethnography. Ethnography is the emphasis in explaining and interpreting behavior in a particular culture. Researchers join and live with a community for a certain time. Researchers involved and at the same time observing the activities of the project, and taking notes, conducting interviews and reflected in the results of the study.3. Grounded Theory. This method tends to emphasize observations at the level of theory, especially in the fields of education and health, in order to refine existing theories, hence the results of the study.
1.7 Qualitative Data AnalysisQualitative data was obtained from the primary data process between researchers and participants (respondents). When there are two researchers who analyzed the same theme, they can lead to two different results. This happens because the analysis process involves personal background influenced by the researcher and the respondent can be fickle. Besides, differences may occur because of differences in methodology, there are political interests, or the interests behind the research they will be there. However, the analysis of qualitative data can be compiled with kaulitatif analysis.Qualitative data analysis is heavily influenced by the research topic, time, preferences of researchers, funding, and equipment. Thus kualititaf data analysis begins with preparing the format to be used in the analysis. This format can be a record of the process of observation, open-ended questionnaire format field. This format is used to write the response and the conditions observed. At least structured format that includes anyone who meninterview / observation, date, time, duration and where the interview / observation. Included in this format contains records of when the interview took place, the responses to the research themes, the things that come up when the interview took place, etc..1. Thematic Analiysis (Thematic Analysis)When the data were analyzed based on a theme, then it is called a thematic analysis. This analysis techniques tend to think of inductive pattern, where the analysis is intended to obtain data in the form of responses from groups / individuals on a particular theme.2. Comparative Analysis (Comparative Analysis)Comparative analysis has similarities with a thematic analysis, in which researchers use different groups to get the data. Researchers repeatedly comparing the data obtained from one group to another group as well as literature tekait.3. Content AnalysisIn the content analysis, the researchers systematically examine these records into a specific code or a specific word to describe the characteristics of respondents. Code or category can be prepared in advance by the researcher, so that at the stage of code or a category of analysis has been prepared. Content analysis can be used to open enden question with a large number of questionnaires, and researchers can quantify the qualitative data.4. Discourse AnalysisThe analysis is more concerned with the pattern of the respondents spoke when given a question, what kind of sentence that respondents, and how the response to the speaker on the subject of research. Thus, the analysis is more on intuition and analysis describing what happened to the respondent.

Pengertian dan Pelaksanaan Metode Ceramah

A. Pengertian Metode
Agar tujuan dalam proses belajar mengajar dapat tercapai secara efektif dan efisien, keampuan seorang pendidik dala enguasai materi saja tidaklah mencukupi. Disamping penguasaan materi, seorang pendidik juga harus memiliki keampuan untuk mengelolah proses belajar mengajar dengan baik, yaitu melalui berbagai teknik atau metode penyampaian materi yang tepat dala proses belajar mengajar sesuai dengan materi yang diajarkan dan kemampuan anak didik yang menerima materi.
Istilah metode berasal dari dua kata yaitu meta dan hodos. Meta berarti" Melalui" dan hodos berarti" Cara" . dengan demikian, metode dapat berarti jalan atau cara yang harus dilalui untuk mencapai sebuah tujuan. Selain itu, ada juga yang mengatakan bahwa Meted adalah suatu sarana untuk menemukan, menguji dan menyusun data yang diperlukan bagi pengembangan disiplin tersebut. Pada intinya, metode berfungsi sebagai pengantar sebuah tujuan kepada obyek dadaran dengan cara yang sesuai dengan perkembangan obyek sasaran tersebut.
Sebagaimana kita tahu, bahwa metode mengajar merupakan sasaran interaksi antara guru dengan siswa dalam kegiatan belajar engajar. Dengan demikian, yang perlu diperhatikan adalah ketepatan sebuah metode mengajar yang dipilih dengan tujuan, jenis dan sifat materi pelajaran, serta kemampuan guru dalam memahami dan melaksanakan metode tersebut. Guru hendaknya cermat dalam memilih dan menggunakan metode mengajar terutama yang banyak melibatkan siswa secara aktif.
Belajar mengajar merupakan kegiatan yang koplek. Oleh karenanya, maka hampir tidak mungkin untuk menunjukkan dan menyimpulkan bahwa suatu metode belajar mengajar tertentu lebih unggul dari pada metode belajar mengajar yang lain dalam usaha mencapai tujuan pembelajaran.


B. Pengerti Metode Ceramah
Menurut Nana Sudjana ceramah adalah penuturan bahan pelajaran secara lisan. Metode ini tidak senantiasa jelek bila penggunaannya dipersiapkan dengan baik, didukung dengan alat dan media, sera memperhatikan batas-batas penggunaannya. ( Nana Sudjana 2000:77). Menurut Drs. Muhaimin MA, dkk metode ceramah merupakan kombinasi dari metode hafalan, diskusi dan Tanya jawab (Muhaimin, dkk, 1996: 83). Sedangkan menurut W. Scham dala bukunya "the process and effects of mass communication" dala hal ingatan sesuatu yang disampaikan dengan lisan lebih laa ingata dari pada disampaikan dengan tulisan. Selain itu, mmetode ceramah itu pada umumnya dilakukan secara pebicaraan face to face hal ini menurut W. Schram adalah sangat efektif.
Dalam metode ceramah ( lecture method) adalah sebuah cara Melaksanakan pengajaran yang dilakukan oleh guru secara mon0olog dan hubungan satu arah (one way communication), metode ini dipandang paling efektif dala mengatasi kelangkaan literature atau rujukan yang sesuai dengan jangkauan daya faha siswa.

C. Pelaksanaan Metode Ceramah
Penerapan metode ceramah merupakan cara mengajar yang paling tradisional dan tidak asing lagi dan telah lama dijalankan dalam sejarah pendidikan. Cara ini kadang membosankan, maka dalam pelaksanaannya memerlukan ketrampilan tertentu, agar penyajiannya tidak membosankan dan dapat menarik perhatian siswa. Namun kita masih mengakui bahwa metode ceramah ini tetap penting dengan tujuan, agar siswa mendapatkan informasi tentang suatu pokok atau persoalan tertentu.
Metode ini wajar dan dapat digunakan dalam hal-hal sebagai berikut:
 Bahan pelajaran yang akan disampaikan cukup banyak sementara waktu yang tersedia sangat terbatas.
 Guru seorang pembicara yang baik yang memikat serta antusias.
 Guru akn merangkum pokok penting pelajaran yang telah dipelajari, sehingga siswa diharapkan bisa memahami dan mengerti secara menyeluruh.
 Guru memperkenalkan pokok pelajaran yang baru dan menghubungkannya terhadap pelajaran yang telah lalu (Asosiasi).
 Jumlah siswa terlalu banyak sehingga bahan pelajaran sulit disapaikan melalui metode ini.
Langkah-langkah penerapan metode ceramah
Langkah-langkah yang harus diperhatikan dalam mengaplikasikan metode ceramah adalah sebagai berikut:
a. Langkah Persiapan
Persiapan yang dimaksud disini adalah enjelaskan kepada siswa tentang tujuan pelajaran dan pokok-pokok masalah yang akan dibahas dalam pelajaran tersebut. Disamping itu, guru memperbanyak bahan appersepsi untuk membantu mereka memahami pelajaran yang akan disajikan.
b. Langkah Penyajian
Pada tahap ini guru menyajikan bahan yang berkenaan dengan pokok-pokok masalah.
c. Langkah Generalisasi
Dalam hal ini unsur yang sama dan berlainan dihimpun untuk mendapatkan kesimpulan-kesimpulan mengenai pokok-pokok masalah.
d. Langkah Aplikasi Penggunan
Pada langkah ini kesimpulan yang diperoleh digunakan dalam berbagai situasi sehingga nyata makna kesimpulan itu.
Namun perlu diketahui juga bahwa untuk menggunakan metode ceramah secara murni itu sukar, maka dala pelaksanaannya perlu menaruh perhatian untuk mengkombinasikan dengan teknik-teknik penyajian lain sehingga proses belajar mengajar yang dilaksanakan dapat berlangsung dengan intensif.

Classification of Islamic Education Teaching Methods and Functions


CHAPTER IIDISCUSSION
A. Classification of Islamic Education Teaching Methods and FunctionsMethod comes from the Greek "Methodos'' which means the way or the path. With respect to the scientific effort, it comes to the workings of the method to be able to grasp objects that were targeted science is concerned. Function means method as a means to an end.Knowledge of teaching methods is in need by educators, because the success or failure of student learning is dependent on whether or not the appropriate teaching methods used by teachers.Learning method that is able to generate motive, interest or passion learning activities of students and ensure the development of student's personality is the method of discussion. Discussion method is a way of teaching that is characterized by an attachment to a topic or subject any questions or problems. Where frank discussions with members trying to reach or obtain a decision or opinion agreed.In a discussion of methods teachers can guide and educate students for life in an atmosphere of responsibility, msetiap people who speak or express opinions must be based on certain principles that can diperanggungjawabkan. So it's not nonsense, nor to incite or disruptive atmosphere. Respect the opinions of others, accept and reject enar opinion pendapatb wrong is the hallmark of the methods that can dighunakan democratic-minded students to educate and train their speaking ability. Active learning atmosphere so that students can be achieved, then the discussion can use a variety of learning models attract and motivate students. Of secant many existing learning models, jigsaw learning model suitable for use in methods of discussion.We ought to know, that the methods of teaching Islamic education here very many of them are:
1. Lecture methodTeachers provide a description or explanation to a number of students at certain awaktu (limited time) and certain places anyway. Implemented in the spoken language to give meaning to a problem, because it is often called the lecture method, because there are similarities teachers teach with a teacher giving a lecture to his students.With this lecture the students sit, look and listen, and believe that what is true diceramahkan teachers, students cite effort as much as the students themselves lecture and memorize marks on further investigation by the teachers concerned. [1]Function as follows:a. To dispel the misconceptions of students to the material provided, an explanation should be given and descriptions, gestures, and examples should be sufficient and if necessary use the media.b. Selingilah lecture method with other methods to relieve boredom learnersc. Arrange lectures systematically.Its terms:Abdul Kadir Munsyi Dip., And et al, Guidelines for Teaching the Practical Guidance for prospective teachers, formulate, among others:a. Mastered the material and connect with other subjects (kerelasi),b. Provide an opportunity to the students to think (activity),c. Take the time to repeat with questions of memory and mind (Abdul Kadir Munsyi Dip., And et al. 1981: 69). [2]

2. Question and answer methodQuestion and answer method is the delivery of the lesson with the teacher asking questions and students answer. Or an educational method in which the teacher asks students to answer while on the material you want obtained.Another method of question jawanb understanding is how the presentation of the lesson in the form of questions to be answered, especially from the teacher to the student or the student may also from teachers.In the history of Islam was known method of question and answer, because this method is often used by the Prophet and Messenger of Allah to teach the doctrine that brought to his people. This method includes the oldest method in addition to the lecture method, but its effectiveness is greater than the other methods. Because, the question and answer method, understanding and understanding can be obtained more stable. So that any form of misunderstandings and weaknesses sense the lessons can be avoided as much as possible.Word of Allah with regard to this method are:! $ TBur $ Uzu = y ™ ö'r & ÆÏB y7Î = ö6s% ZWI) Zw% y `Í 'ûÓÇrqœR öNÍköŽs9Î) 4 (# þqè = t« ó ¡Su ÷ Ÿ @ dr & Ì?? Ø.Ïe%! $ # BI) óOçGYä. YW tbqçHs> ÷ ès? ÇÍÌÈIts mean: "And we have not sent before you, except that the men we gave the revelation to them, then ask the person who has knowledge if you do not know." (Surat al-Nahl: 43).In Islam, people of knowledge when asked about his knowledge required to answer the extent of his ability, if not, then Allah threatened her with a very grievous chastisement. As word of the Prophet:من سئل عن علم فكتمه الجمه الله بلجام من النار (رواه الطبراني)Meaning: "Whoever asked about the science, and he hid it, then Allah will curb the confinement of the fire of hell." (Narrated by al-Tabarani)Different from the question and answer method of evaluation. Question and answer method is one technique of delivery of material, while the evaluation is the measuring tool for measuring student learning outcomes. [3]Function as follows:a. Determine an achievable goalb. Formulate questions to be askedc. Questions posed to the students as a whole, before the sala appoint one student to answerd. Summarized the results of charge, in order to obtain knowledge systematically.3. discussion methoddiscussion method is a way to learn the subject matter by debating the issues that arise and complain to each other in a rational and objective arguments. This method raises attention and change behavior of children in learning. Method of discussion is also intended to stimulate the students to learn and think critically and rationally expressed their opinions and objective in solving the problem. Principles that need to be restrained in a discussion, among others:a. actively involve students in discussions held,b. necessary order and regularity in an opinion in rotation led by a chairman or moderator,c. issues discussed and adjusted to the child's ability,d. teachers trying to encourage students to undertake a less active or expressed their opinions,e. students are accustomed to respect other people's opinions in favor of or against the opinion,f. atuaran and the discussion should be explained to the students who are still not familiar with the procedures discussed so that they can seamlessly follow. [4]Function as follows:a. to foster transparent and tolerant attitude to students because he used to listen to the opinions of others even if that opinion is different from hers.b. To search for a variety of input in deciding a / several issues together.c. To familiarize students to think logically and systematically.4. Demonstration methodDemonstration method is the method of educating the group that was exemplified by the Prophet. For example, in the teaching of the Prophet himself prayed to demonstrate the ways a good prayer.He said which means:: "pray as I pray for you all." (Narrated by Bukhari).Also advocated prayer berjamaan with reward multiplied 27 times or Friday prayers every Friday once a week, and so on. With the way this group know and understand the process of science pengatahuan more effective, therefore are able to ask each other and correct each other when each other wrongdoing. [5]Its function:a. To provide specific skills training to studentsb. For ease of explanation given that direct students to know and be able to do so skilled.5. Method of assignment (recitation)Abu Ahmadi suggests that the method of assignment or recitation pupil is given a special assignment outside class hours. Mahfudh Saladin and et al, explained that the method of assignment is a way of teaching that is characterized by the presence of planning activities between students and teachers on an issue or problem to be solved and mastered by learners with a certain period of time mutually agreed between the learners and educators.Function as follows:a. Aimed to gain specific skills in doing something, example mengayam skills, making flowers from paper, and sebagaainya.b. To strengthen the knowledge that has been received by the students.Its terms:a. If clear goals to be achieved by learners,b. If the task is given to encourage learners to foster initiative,c. The task given to fill spare time learners,d. Activities undertaken should be able to add the experience of learnerse. All tasks assigned educators should be clear by learnersf. Educators give some clues in an effort penyesuainnya. [6]6. Methods sociodramasSociodramas consists of two syllables "Socio" which means people, and "drama" which means the state of a person or the incident experienced by people, nature and behavior, one's relationships, one's relationship with others and so on.Sodiodrama method is a method of teaching in which the teacher provides the opportunity for students to perform certain activities such as playing a role in public life are (social).From the above it can be concluded, that sociodramas is a form of teaching methods staging or acting out behavior in social relationships. The basic principle of this method is contained in the Qur'an, on surah Al-Maidah verses 27-31, which tells a very impressive drama between Cain and Abel.In that paragraph provides a clear picture, how the play is done by Cain can give the impression of a very deep so regretted his actions, because he saw himself directly deeds of a crow. [7]Function as follows:a. Lessons are intended to explain the events and concerns experienced by many people didactic considerationsb. The lesson is intended to train students to solve problems that are psychologicalc. To train students to be able to get along and make it possible for other people and their understanding of the problem.7. Methods of study toursAccording to H. Zuhairini et al, the field trip method is a method of teaching which is carried out by way of taking children out of class to be able to show these things or events that had to do with lessons. Curriculum Dikdaktik team methodically explained, that the methods of the field trip is a teaching method in which students and teachers left the school to go to a place to investigate or learn certain things.From some of the above shows that this method is an alternative which is for students to gain learning experiences that are not obtained directly in the classroom. This method is very well done as a distraction because students can take straight to the real world.Function as follows:a. Students actively engaged in their respective dutiesb. During the teacher in charge of student activities melakasanakan provide guidance, supervision, motivating and ask questions.c. Temporary data processingd. Preparation of reports generated through the implementation of the results of the event. Of these activities, teachers can assess the progress in the visit.8. Methods of exercise / drillZuhairini defines that the drill method is a method of teaching by way of training students to the lesson material that has been given.Function as follows:a. To provide feedback to teachers as a basis to improve the teaching and learning process.b. To determine the rate of progress / results of their study viding studentsc. To place students in appropriate learning situations.9. Methods of problem solvingMethods of problem solving / problem solving is a method in education and teaching with road train children to deal with the problems of the most simple to the difficult problems. [8]Function as follows:a. In order to combat juvenile delinquency (in the field of morals), the most effective way to collect alms, and other problems in the field of jurisprudence (both worship and mua'amalat)10. Group work methodRamayulis formulate the presentation of the material in a way that assignments to learn something to learn groups that have been defined in order to achieve the goal (Ramayulis, 1990: 165). Mahfudh Saladin, et al. Describes a method of teaching, students are organized into groups receiving lessons on time or at certain tasks.Function as follows:a. When kekuarang equipment or facilities in class, for example, in one class there are only a few books alone, while the number of students is quite a lot. To achieve the purpose of teaching and students are required to read the book then the class can work with students who are more proficientb. The presence of several units of work that needs to be completed in the same time or when a more precise job duties specified, then the class is divided several groups according to the type of need, and each group is responsible for specific tasks given.Its terms:a. The task group should be clear,b. Educators must be able to perform personal in the group,c. There are data that support,d. Educators take the time to monitor. [9]11. Experimental methodsExperimental methods (experimental) is a way of presenting a lesson in which students conduct experiments to prove his own experience and learned something. In teaching and learning with the experimental method students are given the opportunity to experience for themselves or do themselves, following a process, observing an object, analyzing, proving and draw your own conclusions about an object, situation or process anything. Thus, or trying to find a law or proposition, and draw conclusions on the processes in nature. [10]Function as follows:a. To provide specific training to students ketempilan.

CHAPTER IIICLOSING
ConclusionMethod comes from the Greek "Methodos'' which means the way or the path. With respect to the scientific effort, it comes to the workings of the method to be able to grasp objects that were targeted science is concerned. Function means method as a means to an end.Knowledge of teaching methods is in need by educators, because the success or failure of student learning is dependent on whether or not the appropriate teaching methods used by teachers.Learning method that is able to generate motive, interest or passion learning activities of students and ensure the development of student's personality is the method of discussion. Discussion method is a way of teaching that is characterized by an attachment to a topic or subject any questions or problems. Where frank discussions with members trying to reach or obtain a decision or opinion agreed.Several methods of Islamic education, among others:a. Lecture methodb. Question and answer methodc. Discussion methodd. Demonstration methode. Method of assignmentf. Group work methodg. Methods sociodramash. Methods of field tripi. Drll methods / exercisesj. Methods of problem solving (Problem solvinbg)

REFERENCES
Arief, Armai. , 2002. Introduction and Methodology of Islamic Education, Jakarta: Chester Press.Djamarah, Syaiful Bahri & Zain Aswan. 2010. Teaching and Learning Strategies. Jakarta: Rineka Reserved.Daradjat, zakiah. 1995. Special methodical teaching of Islam. London: Earth Akasara.Namsa, Jonah. In 2000. Islamic Teaching Methodology, Ternate: Pustaka Firdaus.Uhbiyati, Nur. , 1997. Islamic Education (IPI) for UIN-STAIN-PTAIS Education Faculty, MKDK Components, Bandung: Pustaka Setia.Usman, Basyiruddin. , 2002. Methodology of Islamic Learning, London: Chester Press.Zuhairini & et al. 1981. Special methodical Religious Education, New York: National Business.



[1] Dr. Zakiah Daradjat & et al, methodical Special Teaching Islam, (London: Earth Literacy, 1995), p. 289.[2], Drs. Namsa Yunus, Islamic Teaching Methodology, (Ternate: Pustaka Firdaus, 2000), p. 68-69.[3] Dr. Armai Arief, M. A., Introduction and Methodology of Islamic Education, (New York: ciputat Press, 2002), p. 140-142.[4] Drs. M. Basyiruddin Usman, M. P., Methodology of Islamic Learning, (London: Chester Press, 2002), p. 36-37.[5] Dra. Hj. Uhbiyatti Nur, Islamic Education (IPI) for UIN, STAIN-PTAIS, Faculty Tarbiya, MKDK Components, (New York: Library of Truth, 1997), p. 112.[6] Drs. Namsa Yunus, Islamic Teaching Methodology, op., Cit, p. 75.[7] Dr. Armai Arief, M. A., Introduction and Methodology of Islamic Education, op., Cit, p. 179-180.[8] Dra. H. Zuhairini & et al, methodical Special Religious Education, (New York: National Business, 1981), p. 99.[9] Drs. Namsa Yunus, Islamic Teaching Methodology, (Ternate: Pustaka Firdaus, 2000), p. 83-84.[10] Drs. Syaiful Bahri Djamarah & DSR. Aswan Zain, Teaching and Learning Strategy, (New York: Rineka Copyright, 2010), Cheque 4th, h. 84.Posted by seruandakwah at 15:25 No comments:Email This BlogThis Share to Twitter Share to FacebookOlder Post HomeSubscribe to: Post Comments (Atom)About MeMy Pictures