Research by Iqbal Hasan is channeling human curiosity towards the existence of a problem with a particular behavior, in order to obtain something (to reach the truth, the answer to the problem, the development of science, and to test the theory).Research is the search for truth and prove scientifically. Scientific research says if the way it works exhibit certain characteristics of science, namely rational, empirical and systematic, objective, critical and controlled. Rational means that the study was done in a way that reached by human reason. Empirical means, in ways that do can be observed by human senses. Systematic means, studies using specific steps that are logical."Research Methodology" comes from the word "method" which means that the right way to do things, and "Logos" which means science or knowledge. So the methodology means that way of doing things using the mind carefully to achieve a goal.In the research methodology, there are several kinds of research include:1.) According to the field of science- Social science: research education, agricultural research, legal research,
economic studies, religious studies, research mission, mission studies, etc.- Exact science: the study of mathematics, chemistry, physics research,
medicine, pharmacy, etc.2.) According to the results obtained- Pure research pure (basic) - applied research (unused)3.) According place- Research labs - research arena- Research library - field research4.) According to the general purpose- Exploratory research (find something new)- Research develompmental (development)- Research verification (test)
5.) According tarapnya- Research inferential6.) According to the approach- Longitudinal study - a qualitative study- Cross sectional study - quantitative research7.) According to the technique- Experimental research - research survey8.) By Scientifics- Scientific research - non-scientific research9.) According to the explanatory- Descriptive research - a comparative studyThe next in the discussion will be explained in detail on the definition of qualitative research, strategies, methods, measures, and data analysis.
1. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHIt is important in qualitative research is how the researchers were able to formulate the problem categories as a concept to compare the data. Qualitative research can explore the attitudes, behaviors and experiences of respondents through interviews and focus group methods.1.1 Definition of Qualitative ResearchQualitative research is a study of the research is descriptive and tend to use inductive analysis approach. Process and meaning (subject perspective) more highlighted in qualitative research. The foundation of the theory is used as a guide to focus the research in accordance with the facts on the ground. Besides the theoretical basis is also useful to provide an overview of the background research and as a discussion of the research results.1.2 Formulation CategoryFormulation digunakann category for any category that address the problems of research, or comparison between categories. For example, a researcher, analyzed a group of clients, researchers can obtain a large number of comparisons categories by using a variety of concepts. Such categories of gender, age category, education level, etc. categories. The selection of categories is certainly based on the formulation and research purposes, so that the category assigned expected to answer the research problem.1.3 Qualitative Research StrategiesIn determining the qualitative research strategy, there are some questions or steps that must be answered first. The first phase, to determine the categories deemed important and relevant to the formulation of research objectives. Determining which category is more important based on the theoretical framework, research coverage, and relevance to the research. The second phase, to determine the similarities and differences of these categories that will be seen whether or not comparable between these categories. The third stage, making relationships between categories so that they can answer the question in the study.1.4 Steps in Qualitative ResearchStages of qualitative research can be classified into two types, namely that suggested by physical measures (field operations / pragmentaris) and the steps taken by the work and thought (conceptual framework / paradigm) qualitative research.Step - step Qualitative research is as follows:1. The study of a new paradigm, examine the empirical issues2. Set topic3. Determine the focus4. Literature5. Develop category / sub-category6. Develop instrument7. Collect field data8. Triangulation9. Data processing10. Description, discussion and conclusions11. Check the validity of the data12. The research report1.5 Model used in Qualitative ResearchQualitative research can be done using two approaches, namely direct approach (direct approach) and indirect approaches (indirect approach).1. Direct ApproachThis approach is explained to respondents the objectives, benefits of research in detail to the respondents in the hope of immediate objective responses obtained from the respondents. In the direct approach can be done through focus groups and interviews / interview in depth (depth interviews).
1. Focus GroupFocus Group is an interview / interview that uses a moderator, where the number of respondents is relatively small (8-12 persons) and homogeneous, unstructured and done naturally. Factors commercialized place a relaxed informal atmosphere, so the knee-jerk response can be obtained, during the period of 1-2 hours. In the case of focus groups (FG) is the moderator had a significant role in creating a relaxed and informal atmosphere. So the ability to interact, the ability to stimulate the respondents to express an opinion, the ability to control emotionally and intellectually, is absolutely necessary.2. In-depth Interviews (Depth Interview)Interview / interview conducted directly on a nik in using the models respondents' probe (probe) "by an interviewer. The purpose of the interview is to find out some things that have not been revealed by the respondents, such as: motivation, beliefs, behaviors, feelings about a given topic in order to obtain the data for analysis.Some of these techniques include Depth Interview:1. LadderingThe process of asking questions of "product characteristics" changed to "user characteristics" or according to the wishes and opinions of consumers.2. Questions about Hidden IssueThe technique gives more questions involve personal opinions.3. Symbolic AnalysisEmotional fishing techniques through submission of the things that are contrary to reality, to do when the interview somewhat less willing to participate in the interview / interview.In an interview, the interviewer / researcher needs to consider several issues related to the interviewee. Engineering interview / interviews are expected to be obtained by a direct response more objectively, because the less likely influenced by others. For that interviewers / researchers need to put themselves on the side that wants to know. For that the words "I know", "I disagree", "I'm sorry I cut your explanation", etc. should be avoided, in other words, given the breadth of the respondent to answer.2. Indirect ApproachIn this approach, the respondents did not have a clear or exactly what the intention of the researchers, because the researchers did not clearly convey the purpose of the study to the respondents. Techniques in the indirect approach is projective pachniques, and observation1. Projective PachniquesRespondents were asked to provide stimulation and immediate response when the answer appears dipikrannya. One respondent dibri list of words one by one and dimnta respond spontaneously.2. ObservationObservation (observation) is a technique in obtaining data through observation of an object / person in a certain period.1.6 Qualitative Research MethodologySome qualitative research methodology:1. Action Research. In Action Research researchers oanrg join a group that wants / has the same goal. The next step is action (implementsi rncana). This stage menckup events that led to the goals and ideas that have been planned. The third phase of the Action Research is an observation. Tahpan observation pelaksnaan researchers conducted an analysis and observation of the impact on the group members. The last stage is the stage refleksing, which at this stage of interpretation penliti to conditions that occur that can dcari an HSIL ksimpulan RSET. For this kgiatan dri HSIL mbgkur pliti dpat using questionnaire instruments, focus group / interview.2. Ethnography. Ethnography is the emphasis in explaining and interpreting behavior in a particular culture. Researchers join and live with a community for a certain time. Researchers involved and at the same time observing the activities of the project, and taking notes, conducting interviews and reflected in the results of the study.3. Grounded Theory. This method tends to emphasize observations at the level of theory, especially in the fields of education and health, in order to refine existing theories, hence the results of the study.
1.7 Qualitative Data AnalysisQualitative data was obtained from the primary data process between researchers and participants (respondents). When there are two researchers who analyzed the same theme, they can lead to two different results. This happens because the analysis process involves personal background influenced by the researcher and the respondent can be fickle. Besides, differences may occur because of differences in methodology, there are political interests, or the interests behind the research they will be there. However, the analysis of qualitative data can be compiled with kaulitatif analysis.Qualitative data analysis is heavily influenced by the research topic, time, preferences of researchers, funding, and equipment. Thus kualititaf data analysis begins with preparing the format to be used in the analysis. This format can be a record of the process of observation, open-ended questionnaire format field. This format is used to write the response and the conditions observed. At least structured format that includes anyone who meninterview / observation, date, time, duration and where the interview / observation. Included in this format contains records of when the interview took place, the responses to the research themes, the things that come up when the interview took place, etc..1. Thematic Analiysis (Thematic Analysis)When the data were analyzed based on a theme, then it is called a thematic analysis. This analysis techniques tend to think of inductive pattern, where the analysis is intended to obtain data in the form of responses from groups / individuals on a particular theme.2. Comparative Analysis (Comparative Analysis)Comparative analysis has similarities with a thematic analysis, in which researchers use different groups to get the data. Researchers repeatedly comparing the data obtained from one group to another group as well as literature tekait.3. Content AnalysisIn the content analysis, the researchers systematically examine these records into a specific code or a specific word to describe the characteristics of respondents. Code or category can be prepared in advance by the researcher, so that at the stage of code or a category of analysis has been prepared. Content analysis can be used to open enden question with a large number of questionnaires, and researchers can quantify the qualitative data.4. Discourse AnalysisThe analysis is more concerned with the pattern of the respondents spoke when given a question, what kind of sentence that respondents, and how the response to the speaker on the subject of research. Thus, the analysis is more on intuition and analysis describing what happened to the respondent.